2.2.1- The Growth of Classical Civs.


Katie Ziraldo and Courtney Haupt


Opening summary:

Throughout the globe early key states and empires developed due to the unique factors that influenced each civilization. The key focuses of theses civilizations were military dominance, complex religions, promotion of art and architecture, and advancements in technology.These key focuses provide us with a rough outline that we use to compare early states and empires.



Who:
Early key states and empires

What:
The rise of the early key states and empires

Where:
Across the globe

Why & how:
  • Persian Empire:
    • Art:
      • borrowed from predecessors
    • Military:
      • conquest of Babylon
      • conquered Asia as far as the Indus River, Greece, and North Africa
    • Government:
      • efficient and humane administrative system
      • imperial post roads connected important cities
      • equal rights and responsibilities
        • if and only if you keep peace and pay taxes
  • Qin/Han Dynasties:
    Emperor Qin’s maulsoleum, containing the Terracotta Warriors, all different in their facial details.
    Emperor Qin’s maulsoleum, containing the Terracotta Warriors, all different in their facial details.
    • Art/architecture:
      • Great wall
      • extravagant cities and tombs
      • attention to detail
    • Military:
      • disciplined infantry
      • Sunzi “art of war”
        • win battles with as little bloodshed/damage to property as possible
        • conquer to absorb culture, not abolish it
    • Technology:
      • Great wall, roads, transportation from rivers/canals, iron
      • Grew by conquering enemies and absorbing their culture
  • Rome:
    • Art:
      • mosaics
      • attention to detail
    • Military:
      • total warfare
      • incentive for money
      • conquer to eliminate enemies
    • Technology:
      • roads, great walls, stone, diffusion of heat by hypocaust
      • Grew by conquering enemies, eliminating them, and expanding
  • Sparta:
    • Social:
      • placed large importance on courage and discipline
      • corporeal punishment used as a test of endurance
      • forbidden to take part in any activity that would lead to money-making
      • lack prominence do to separation from other Greek city-states, such as rival state, Athens
        • lack of unity
    • Military:
      A detailed depiction of what ancient Athens most likely looked like at its peak.
      A detailed depiction of what ancient Athens most likely looked like at its peak.
      • “conquer or die” philosophy
  • Athens:
    • Social:
      • birthplace of democracy
      • enemy: Sparta
        • much less severe than Sparta
    • Military:
      • preferred mercenaries
        • enjoyed peaceful life




Closing summary:

The early key states and empires of 2ND wave civilizations grew in different ways based on many varying factors. While some empires focused more on military prominence, others aimed to progress in the areas of art, architecture, and technology. Across the globe, more detailed art began to develop, with the emergence of in-depth tombs and tile mosaics. Military began to take over in some cases, such as the Greek city-state Sparta, where conquering enemies became the key goal. Politically, a consistent cycle of rulers gaining to much power and the peasants uprising began, taking down such leaders as Julius Caesar. Although some empires acknowledged religious tolerance, others took the opposite approach. For example, in Rome, the Christians would be fed to lions for public entertainment. Technology boomed in these early states and empires. Such developments as travel by canals, great walls, and metallurgy with iron began to appear.


Case study:
The Parthenon is an example of the Greek's architechtual abilty.
The Parthenon is an example of the Greek's architechtual abilty.

The Maison Carrée, a roman temple, shows the similarities between Greek and Roman architecture.
The Maison Carrée, a roman temple, shows the similarities between Greek and Roman architecture.

The White House is a modern day example of both Greek and Roman architechture.
The White House is a modern day example of both Greek and Roman architechture.














Who:
The Roman Empire and the Greek Empire

What:
The life styles and growth of both empires

Where:
Rome and Greece

Why:
Rome and Greece both became super powers when they where in their prime and the reason they were so large and powerful has to do with their developments through out their growth as empires. Both empires showed very detailed art and architecture in styles involving, pillars symmetry and precise detail, that were very similar. However the Romans preferred to use arches over the traditional ninety degree angle and the Greeks tended to build structures lacking walls. The geography in both areas is similar which lead to many developments that were similar in both areas. Neither place was too mountainous, they each had a lasting supply of water, and cereal grasses flourished in both locations. Rome and Greece both valued their military glorifying it in game as well as in they art work. Although military was important in both cultures Rome and Greece had different style of military. Rome preferred combat on land, while Greece created a navy to the like of which no one had ever seen before. Greece is also home to the infamous Spartans known for their intense lifestyle centered around their military. Politically these two empires were completely different. All of Rome was ruled by a tyrant determined by birth. On the other hand Greece was split up into multiple city-states each ruled individually by tyrants who often did not get along. Although the Greek and Roman Gods are different the Greek and Roman religions are very similar. Both religions are polytheistic (but with one God superior to all other Gods [Rome: Jupiter Greece: Zeus]) with both female and male gods who are well endowed. Each God has a specific role in the lives of his/her followers. Technological advancement happened in both regions although there are some specific advancements that made a larger impact in both empires. Greece was able to dig their aqueducts through mountains and also created the crane to lift heavy building materials. Rome mad the aqueducts using arches as their support which allowed the aqueduct to be strong while saving materials. Rome also created the Chariot. Both Rome and Greece made huge impacts on the modern world due to their growth as early empires. one of the most famous impacts they have had is through there architecture. Greek and Roman architecture can be seen throughout Washington D.C. and on one of the most important buildings in the world the White House.



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