1.3.2- Pastoral Weapons and Transportation

Nick Habben, Connor Nelson

Pastoral societies are those that have a disproportionate dietary emphasis on herding domesticated livestock. The key to the cultural core of pastoralism is the mobility made possible by nomadic herders. Pastoralists take care of herds of animals and because of this they were the ones to first domesticate large land animals for labor and at the same time, develop advanced weapons. Trade and war are both favored by the efficient transportation technology that is in the hands of pastoralists. Pastoralists tended to engage quite freely in commercial trade and conflicts between groups. Carts and caravans are derived directly from the basic adaptations of pastoralists, and are easily adapted to commercial trade and/or raiding and conquest.

Basic Gist

A modern day Pasotalist in Africa, very similar animal herding as back 6000 years ago

Pastoralist societies existed roughly between 10,000 B.C.E . and 500 B.C.E. in most parts of the world, Africa, Southern Asia, the Middle East, and parts of Europe. Notable groups were the Saho and Tigre in Africa, and the Gaddi and Kurma in Asia. They were best known for developing new, more effective weapons and modes of transportation through slow evolution of tools to armaments and the gradual buildup of ideas starting with the wheel. These developments hinged on factors such as the domestication of horses in 4,000 B.C.E., and the movement from stone to metal.

Case Study

      1. Weapons
        • Stationary
          • Archery
            • Early Bows have been found in Africa all the way going to German
            • With the development of metals and better craftsmanship, thus creating more deadly weapons for hunting. Also helped in wars, as human conflicts were starting to become larger in this time period.
          • Hand Held weapons
            • Early tools made of flint and hard stone( insert picture here)
              Early Flint Tool
            • Flint Points, axes, spear, hooks were some of the early stone tools
            • Similar tools were made of metal at first, like axes and spears.
            • The main advantage of tools made of metal is that they are ofter more durable, last longer, and are stronger.
            • Most tools were either for development of food, either it be for working with animals or hunting, or weapons used for war.
          • Fire
            • Used to ward off predators
        • Mobile Weapons
          • Horses
            • From war-horses, warriors went into battle armed with bow and arrow, or sword and javelin, cutting down the people who stood against them while their war-horses trampled anyone whom their masters missed.
          • Chariots (main case study)
            • Chariots were aristocrat innovations. The warrior was the chief of a tribe or a city-state and perhaps had a few nobless who could furnish themselves with chariots and fight for him.
            • Peoples in the area of the Caspian Sea appear to have been developing bronze since about 2000 B.C., but the invaders had developed bronze fittings to build two-wheeled chariots, with light spoked wheels, from which they waged war, and pursued horse- raising to provide themselves with the animals to pull their vehicles.
            • Some chariots were equipped with long, curved bronze blades attached to the hubs of the wheels. These would whirl about like a lawn mower as they went against the enemy, and literally mow them down like grass.
            • Sometimes the warrior would guide his horses himself, but more often he was accompanied by a companion who did the driving.
            • Chariots were started to use once animals had been domesticated like horses in Russia at roughly 400 B.C.E.
            • This would of been the most advanced weapon that they could of made, using all the resource's of their society to produce. Using their domestication of animals, metallurgy to create the chariot and the weapons used while riding the chariots. These would be the sports cars of their days.
            • With the use of chariots pastoralist were able to spread their ideas such as animal domestication, tool making, and later ideas like religion became easier to spread with it. Not only did the transport speed increase, but also the spread of ideas massively increased. This helps sets up better trade routes with much of Europe and Asia. Unfortunately made war easier to spread as the case was in with many of the societies within Egypt.
              An early metal chariot
          • Dogs
            • Trained wolf pups form early age to hunt and track game or people.
            • Also were used for defense they detected enemies before humans could.

  • Modes of Transportation

    • The pastoralists of the Eurasian Steppe, including Indo-Europeans in the early days, Turks and Mongols later, made extensive use of wheeled transportation, as well as riding horses.
    • Chariots were also used for transportation, not just for warfare.
    • The Camel nomads of the Eurasian and North African deserts rode but seldom used cartage.
    • The late, specialized North and South American equestrian hunters were similar to the Arab Bedouin in this respect.
    • Finally, the Eastern and Southern African cattle herding pastoralists used neither carts nor riding animals.
    • Terracotta wagons emerged around 2500 BCE.
    • Carts and wagons were developed towards the end of the 4th millennium.
    • At first, they were drawn by asses or oxen, which were preferable for transporting heavy loads. The cart was two wheeled.
    • Since wagons were slow going no more than 15 km per day, and could be used only on fairly flat land. It was more profitable to transport goods on the backs of donkeys, since these animals could travel over uneven terrain and cover a distance of 20 km per day.
    • Carts allowed Eurasians to carry a larger fraction of the agrarian toolkit around with them, and to assemble and supply larger collections of people in one place.without having a very complex political system.


AGMSPRITE Conclusion

A - Chariots and transportation started being included in art.
G - Could traverse harder lands with the use of horses. Using more durable tools early people are now able to change terrain faster, for example carving rock and deforestation.
M- Basic stone to metal weapons like axes, spears, bow and arrows, and farming tools. Wheeled weapons like chariots and wagons now can be used for faster mobility.
S - Now could travel faster and in larger groups to farther places.
P - Aristocrats were the one with the chariots and other tools.
R - With the increase speed of transportation now had a faster way to spread such. Also religions with better weapons now had a forceful way of being able to spread their religion with more control.
I - Idea of using harder materials for weapons such as the movement to harder stones and later to bronze and the invention of the wheel led to transportation and war-machines.
T - The process of making more advanced tools came from an increase in technology
E - With having more valuable tools and domestication of farming made bartering become more expensive and started to create more inequality.

The art during this time started to depict the fierceness of the chariot and what it could do. The geography aspect of AGMSPRITE was that with the use of donkeys and horses they were able to travel over harder land faster and longer. The transportation that was introduced during this time period allowed almost entire towns to travel and settle on different lands and harvest the resources there. Wheeled weapons allowed for maneuverability and mobility not allowed before, the wagons were able to carry supplies and personnel across lands to where the army is. The weapons allowed for a more effective way to kill. Socially, weapons were a way to control other civilizations and people. Politically only aristocrats and nobles were the ones with chariot. With the transportation that was emerging during this time period, religion was able to spread farther and faster across different civilizations. Weapons also started the idea of controlling other people which was used in religion. Intellect was increasing to because of the idea of using things to enhance objects such as the weapons and transportation. Technology was advanced because of the fact of the different type of weapons and transportation introduced. Economics of this new technology meant that the weapons were more valuable and were bartered for more valuable other objects which made people who controlled or had a monopoly on that weapon in power.

    1. http://history-world.org/neolithic.htm
    2. http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?action=read&artid=723
    3. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Hort_306/text/lec03.pdf
    4. http://www.des.ucdavis.edu/faculty/Richerson/BooksOnline/He5-95.pdf
    5. http://archaeology.about.com/od/tooltypes/a/arrowheads.htm
    6. History of Archery. http://www.strictlybowhunting.com/Anov01issue/history_of_archery.htm
  1. Chariot http://dwellingintheword.wordpress.com/2010/07/01/304-judges-1/
  2. Flint tools http://www.swordforum.com/forums/showthread.php?76564-Flint-tools-by-Diederik-Pomstra
  3. Modern Pastoral http://in2eastafrica.net/tarime-pastoralists-blast-tasaf/